Riffle & Pool Analysis Project (Spring 2010):
In order to do any surveys or any projects in the stream, there needed to be organized yard markers. All the stream groups, on the 7th day, made markers out of PVC pipe and spray painted them to make them more visible. We planted all 14 of them every 25 yards. Once we were done with this, we all started separate surveys and projects.

Trey and Kenzie started two surveys once the stream was marked off. They did a pebble count at every 25 yards and also recorded where every riffle, run, and pool was. A pebble count is where 50 random rocks are picked up and measured to determine the range of sediment in that part of the stream. We measured the rocks in millimeters and put them on a chart.


We did the pebble counts to see the diversity of rocks in the stream. This is important because if there are not enough rocks in the stream it will cause erosion. They recorded the riffles, runs, and pools because we needed to make sure there was a good balance between them all.


Analysis:
Once they were done with the pebble counts, the data was copied onto Microsoft Excel and graphs were created. After they were done with recording riffles, runs, and pools, the data was copied onto a larger map, which was used in the stream restoration project.


Bibliography:
http://www.coastal-watershed.org/CWC_Library/Water_Quality/index.htm
2005, coastal watershed council
http://www.dauphincd.org/swm/BMPfactsheets/Filter%20Strip%20fact%20sheet.pdf
Dauphin County Conservation District
dictionary.reference.com/browse/conductivity
2009, Dictionary.com
ehs.unc.edu/environmental/water_quality/param_explan.htm
1997, Volunteer Stream Monitoring
http://www.epa.gov/weatherchannel/stormwater.html
January 2003, EPA
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/phdiagram.html
March 29, 2010. Howard Perlman
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/fenlewis/Waterquality.html
May 4, 2010. NASA Summer Camp 95 from Strongsville
www.lenntech.com/water-conductivity.htm
1998-2008, Lenntech Water Treatment and Purification Holding B.V.
pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/esb0037a605
www.state.nj.us/drbc/snapshot_terms.htm

2008, Clarke Rupert
www.stream-team.org/parameters/conductb.html
2004, Stream Team
www.uwgb.edu/watershed/data/monitoring/conductivity.htm
2003, University of Wisconsin
www.wileywater.com/contributor/sample_2.htm
2008, John Wiley & Sons


Materials and Costs

Item
Price
Quantity
Total
LaMotte® Dissolved Oxygen Test Kit
$29.60
1
$29.60
Wide Range pH Testing Kit Cat#2119
$25.95
1
$25.95






Total
$55.55

Fortunately, we have borrowed a conductivity meter from the Kentucky Watershed Watch and had test kits available from the previous stream units.



Survey and Test Results

Date:

5/12/2010
5/13/2010
5/14/2010
5/17/2010
5/19/2010
Temp/Weather:
25˚C (77˚F)
23˚C (73˚F)
23˚C (73˚F)
23˚C (74˚F)
24˚C (75˚F)


Rain Storm
Partly Cloudy
Partly Cloudy
Some rain
Partly Cloudy
Origion
Time
2:33pm

1:40pm
2:47pm
2:26pm

Temp.


20˚C
17˚C
16˚C

Conductivity
1090 µS/cm

1360 µS/cm
920 µS/cm
1180 µS/cm

pH


7.5
7
7.3

DO


7.5ppm
8.5ppm
9ppm
25 meters
Time
2:30pm

1:52pm



Temp.


19˚C



Conductivity
1120 µS/cm

1340 µS/cm



pH






DO





50 meters
Time
2:28pm

2:03pm
2:39pm
2:22pm

Temp.


19˚C



Conductivity
1140 µS/cm

1340 µS/cm
930 µS/cm
1210 µS/cm

pH


7.4
7.2
7.5

DO





75 meters
Time
2:17pm

2:10pm



Temp.


19˚C



Conductivity
1180 µS/cm

1280 µS/cm



pH






DO





100 meters
Time
2:15pm

2:30pm
2:25pm
2:13pm

Temp.


19˚C
16˚C
16˚C

Conductivity
1190 µS/cm

1270 µS/cm
940 µS/cm
1170 µS/cm

pH


7.3
7.4
7.1

DO


7.4ppm
7.5ppm
9ppm
125 meters
Time
2:10pm

2:35pm



Temp.


19˚C



Conductivity
1180 µS/cm

1250 µS/cm



pH






DO





150 meters
Time
2:22pm

2:40pm
2:22pm
2:02pm

Temp.


20˚C



Conductivity
1180 µS/cm

1250 µS/cm
940 µS/cm
1160 µS/cm

pH


7.4
7.4
7.5

DO





175 meters
Time
2:39pm

2:44pm



Temp.


20˚C



Conductivity
1110 µS/cm

1240 µS/cm



pH






DO





200 meters
Time
2:42pm
1:30pm
2:53pm
2:07pm
1:54pm

Temp.

19˚C
19˚C
17˚C
15˚C

Conductivity
1110 µS/cm
1150 µS/cm
1230 µS/cm
930 µS/cm
1100 µS/cm

pH


7.4
7.5
7.3

DO

8ppm
8.2ppm
7ppm
9ppm
225 meters
Time
2:44pm





Temp.






Conductivity
1100 µS/cm





pH






DO





250 meters
Time
2:46pm


1:46pm
1:50pm

Temp.






Conductivity
1110 µS/cm


940 µS/cm
1160 µS/cm

pH



7.3
7.3

DO





275 meters
Time

2:30pm




Temp.

19˚C




Conductivity

1170 µS/cm




pH






DO





300 meters
Time

2:20pm

1:33pm
1:30pm

Temp.



16˚C
15˚C

Conductivity

1150 µS/cm

930 µS/cm
1150 µS/cm

pH



7.3
7.4

DO



8ppm
8ppm
North
Time

2:00pm

1:27pm

Boarder
Temp.

20˚C




Conductivity

1140 µS/cm

920 µS/cm


pH






DO

6.5ppm










Almost everyday I took tests on the stream with conductivity, pH, and Dissolved Oxygen testing kits. After I finished, I put all of my results onto a chart then I made graphs. When I gave my spiel, I talked about the tests I did: conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen. I had graphs and pictures of how to do the tests on my board. Also, I had an activity for people to do.

If I were to do this project again, I would plan out which parts of the stream I was going to do better. The places where I tested were random. To make the stream healthier, I think we should pick up trash around the stream and find out where all the pollution is coming from. The data indicates that pollutants are entering our stream from across the road. This should be the next step in our investigation.


Demo Day:
The major points of our demo day speech were designed to show the roles of the sediment, riffles, runs, and pools. The size differential and how the pebble counts were done were explained along with how it affected erosion. Riffles, runs, pools, and other attributes through the stream were defined and many examples were given to give the audience a better understanding of them and their importance. For their activity, the audience was able to throw rocks into the stream to create a riffle. This helped them understand the importance of them and be able to help complete the project.


Problems:


We noticed that there was a lack of riffles in the stream, which contributes to the low dissolved oxygen levels down stream. If the stream restoration project does not go through the next unit will need to determine where to put new riffles. It is recommended make riffles in between the origin and the bridge. If it does not go through, there will need to be pebble counts taken near the beginning of the year and the end.